Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Religion In Pompeii And Herculaneum Religion Essay

Religion In Pompeii And Herculaneum Religion Essay Archaeologists in the past and today have recovered and excavated sources to reveal aspects and facts of past societies. The two main cities of Vesuvius, Pompeii and Herculaneum have undergone such excavations, enabling historians of today to reveal facts, in particularly, about religion in the cities. Religion was an important part of an individuals life in both Pompeii and Herculaneum. The religion of the time was polytheistic, meaning that the civilisation believed and worshipped spirits of the Gods. Religion was an active part of everyday life and the worship of offerings was performed in order to keep the Gods satisfied, to ensure the prosperity and safety of all aspects of ones life, and ones family. A number of sources both written and archaeological have provided todays society with facts and evidence of the household Gods and foreign cults of that civilisation. The sources and what they reveal about religion, household Gods and foreign cults, will be explained below. Most sacred, the most hallowed place on earth is the home of each and every citizen. There are his sacred heart and his household Gods, there the very centre of his worship, religion and domestic ritual Cicero. This written source clearly identifies and reveals that the citizens of Pompeii and Herculaneum were intertwined both mentally and emotionally with their religion and spirituality. Cicero describes the religion to be most sacred, revealing that religion played an important, central and significant role in the daily lives and households of an individual and their family. Not only does this source emphasise the importance of religion, but it shows its importance and passion of worship and action within the home. This is revealed through the use of the words, most hallowed place on earth. The worship and rituals of the Household Gods were central and essential within the household and home of an individual. Hence the household Gods were a major and significant aspect of religion in Pompeii and Herculaneum. Many religious practices were celebrated by citizens in their home and household shrine known as the Lararium. Larariums have been found and excavated all over Pompeii and Herculaneum, by modern archaeologists such as Guiseppe Fiorelli. Household Gods sought to save the family from any misfortune or negativity that may enter the door; a spiritual place of the home that needed to be protected by the guardian spirits (Lares) of the households, from incoming evils that may try and enter the home. A lararium excavated in the House of the Vetti, containing a wall painting of the lares (household Gods), a genius (the god of the male line of decent), the Mercury God of commerce and the Dionysus God of wine, depicts and reveals aspects and facts of such household Gods and their importance to an individual and their family. The lararium was found in the atrium, at the entrance of the house. This source is structured and built depicting the front of a temple with columns. This observation revealed to archaeologists that the source has a religious meaning. A wall painting within the infrastructure depicting a temple is an image of the spirit family of genius, Lares, household Gods and other deities. The figure on the furthest left of the image is the genius. The genius wears a toga, in purple symbolising its high ranking and importance, as its the line of male decent to the paterfamilias of the household; prospering fertility for the families continuation. On either side, the Lares o f the household are holding a drinking horn in one hand and a wine bucket in the other. The drinking horns and wine buckets symbolise the offerings of worship and praise towards the Mercury God of commerce (right) and the Dionysus God of Wine (centre).The depiction of drinking horns and wine buckets also symbolise the household prayers and worship that were led by and was a responsibility of the paterfamilias and the offerings of fruit, incense and special cakes were made at the shrine. The snakes below the Lares, which move towards a small altar, have been interpreted as a protective spirit of the Lares and the offerings made to them. The snakes were protectors of prosperity. Pompeii and Herculaneum contained a society that was tolerant and accepting of the worship and rituals brought about by foreign Gods and imported cults. Pompeii and Herculaneum were bombarded with influences from Egypt and Eastern Mediterranean, which affected the structure, traditions and rituals of their religion. Two cults that had a significant affect and presence in Pompeii were the Egyptians cult of Isis and the cult of Bacchus. The cult if Isis, was the goddess of life, fertility and rebirth;A temple of Isis was excavated in Pompeii, revealing that such a cult was worshipped among many in the civilisation as the temples structure proved to be complex and extravagant compared to other temples eg. Surrounded by high walls, initiation hall and an underground chamber storing a basin of holy water retrieved from the Nile River. The worshippers of the cult performed daily rituals and ceremonies carried out by priests at dawn and in the afternoon. Source four, a fresco found in Herculaneum depicts and reveals the ceremonies that took place for the cult of Isis. The fresco shows the high priest standing at the entrance of the temple, looking down on the ceremony beneath. One priest tends to the sacred fire and another priest leads the followers of worship in two rows. In the foreground of the source there are two ibises, sacred to Isis. This source also reveals that women in Pompeii were drawn to this cult, as most worshippers in the fresco appear to be women. It reveals that this cult was widespread, worshipped daily and extremely influential. It also reveals that foreign cults in Pompeii and Herculaneum were accepted and prominent within the civilisation. There is also evidence suggesting the presence of other foreign cults in the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Through the excavation of archaeological sources, cult objects found in Pompeii and the cult of Sabazius has been suggested. There is also various evidence of the existence of Judaism including graffito of Judaic names, frescos and the presence of Jews nearby. Till today, there is much speculation as to whether or not Christianity was present in the cities, as evidence of the crucifixion was found. Religion in Pompeii and Herculaneum was an important and significant part of each individuals homes and daily lives. From the archaeological sources excavated and the written sources produced, it is revealed that the household Gods of each home were the central aspect of living and worship. Each individual lived to favour and fulfil the Gods wants and needs. The sources also reveals facts about the foreign Gods that were brought about to Pompeii and Herculaneum through external influences, like Egypt (cult of Isis), and the significance of such worship for the civilisation. The sources that have been excavated and brought about to todays society reveals facts and helps modern archaeologists gain insight to the unknown of the past. With reference and study of the sources provided in this explanation, the religion of Pompeii and Herculaneum has been revealed. The lares themselves were painted in the lararium. In the lararium painting from the house of the Vetti shown below, the genius is depicted wearing the toga praetexta , bordered in purple, the garment of high-ranking Roman magistrates. The Thermopolium of the Lares in Pompeii shows a typical painting including the snakes associated with protection of food from vermin below the group. The group contains the two lares, the genius of the house, and two further figures Mercury god of commerce and Dionysus god of wine. The paterfamilias was responsible for leading the household prayers at the lararium, and offerings of significance such as first fruits of crops and special cakes, were made at the shrine. The shrine was also garlanded with flowers so there are hooks nearby for this purpose. Of particular importance were family occasions such as birth, marriage and the coming of age of a young man.

Monday, January 20, 2020

The St. Catharines Standard :: essays research papers

The St. Catharines Standard   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  I choose to do my essay on the St. Catharines Standard. The Standard is the St.Catharines and Thorold area newspaper. It provides us with the local news, advertising and it keeps us in touch with what is happening all over the world. It was first owned and runned by the Burgoyne family and was printed in St. Catharines but, was sold last year to Southam Inc. and has started to be printed in Hamilton. Southam Inc. also owns other papers such as The Hamilton Spectator,The Ottawa Citizen and The Kingston Wig. Here are some questions that I have made up about The Standard and I have found the answers for them. 1. How important is The Standard to our economy?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Standard is pretty important to our economy. It provides the peoples of St.Catharines and Hamillton with jobs. It also let's the local businesses advertise their business to the people and attracts businesses to St. Catharines. Which brings money to the city. And finally, I provides St. Catharines with the daily news about the city and all over the world. 2. What is the source and type of the paper and why is it used?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Standard gets their paper from wherever they can get it the cheapest. It is Recycled Newsprint. Recycled newsprint is paper that has been previously used paper that has been shredded, de-inked and then turned into pulp so it can make paper again. This type of paper is used because its economical, lightweight, recyclable and is available world wide. 3. What is the process of making the St. Catharines Standard?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The First step in making the newspaper is in the advertising department. The workers in the advertising dept. sell space in the paper to local businesses for ads. This pays for the paper to be made. Then the ads are produced and are redied for the paper a day before it has to be made. After the ad space is sold the paper is sent up to the editorial room so they can look at the space not occupied by ads and decide what stories the need to fill up the paper. Now to make the paper! The pages are assembled and the ads and stories are cut and pasted on to boards. After that a negative is shot of the board.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Congressional Reconstruction in the south 1863-1867

The radical reconstruction of 1867-1877, known for some of the most significant changes in American history. The Radical reconstruction was supported by Congress and less popular with President Johnson as if focused on Civil rights issues, something that Johnson chad no interest in. The reconstruction was meant to improve the economy of the devastated south, Politics and social Justice following the American civil war (War of the south).It wasn't until â€Å"March of 1867 when congress adopted the Reconstruction act even though Johnson had vetoed it† (Foner, Give Me Liberty, II 566), the period of Radical Reconstruction begun, note that Johnson had his own plans for reconstruction. The Radical Reconstruction made several demands such as; voting rights for freed slaves, Radicals to conform to the idea of equality, protection of the Republican Party in the south, keeping old confederate generals from office, increased tariff on good to support state funded programs.Immediate ach ievements of the Reconstruction act of 1867 were: formation of political organization, â€Å"spread of the Republican Party in southern' states that were returned o the Union† (Foner, Give Me Liberty, II 57), which increased the public's involvement in free public education, orphanages, prisons and homes for the mentally challenged. The ‘Union league' was one of the achievements during the Reconstruction. Its formation resulted from mass political meetings which included man, woman and children who simply rallied to claim the very rights enjoyed by the white citizens.These meetings were widely attended and produced both male and female speakers such as Frances Ellen Watkins Harper and James D. Lynch. Frances was known â€Å"for her two years' tour and lectures of ‘Literacy, land and Liberations'†¦ nd James was known for his abilities to draw upon the emotion of his audience† (Foner, Give Me Liberty, II 573). In 1868-1869 new state constitutions were fo rmed for the first time with the involvement of the public, most of whom were black representatives, this is why the public was given an increased responsibility in politics.With their involvements, aside from schools and others listed above, the new constitutions removed practices such as; â€Å"whipping for punishments, property qualifications for officeholders, and imprisonment for debt† (Foner, Give Me Liberty, II 573). Other political achievements included an increased number of African Americans who now held public office (estimated 2,000), â€Å"South Carolina was the only state at this time in which African Americans made up the mass of the legislature† (Foner, Give Me Liberty, II 574). this is simply because the population was â€Å"60% blacks† (Foner, Give Me Liberty, II 574) in South Carolina at this time.Finally African Americans held a seat in every level of Government though there were only two blacks who served the U. S. Senate during this period. Hiram from North Carolina and Blanche K. Bruce from. Hiram was born free, received an education, served in the Union Army and became the first â€Å"Black Senator in American history' (Foner, Give Me Liberty, II 574). Blanche unlike Hiram was a former slave. (No addition information mentioned by Foner about Blanche). Though only for a short period the first Black and his mother a freed slave, the second black governor was not elected until â€Å"1989†.Though most blacks who held public offices gained ranks via serving the Union army, some black were born free in the north and received a proper education like Jonathan J. Wright who served on the South Carolina Supreme Court. Among many prominent black officials, Robert Smalls, â€Å"a slave who secretly guided a vessel called the Planter, through enemy waters and delivered it to the Union's Army' (Foner, Give Me Liberty, II 574)? Smalls gained his fame for this single act and later was elected as a political leader in South Carolina and was eventually elected to congress for five terms.Economically, some gained from during the Reconstruction, namely the ‘Carpetbaggers and the Scalawags'. Carpetbaggers were from the north, some simply came to the south for politics and many were Union soldiers who remained in the outh for lands and other economic advantages. Some remained for support in rebuilding and education the south by becoming teachers. Scalawags, a name given to Whites in the south who never owned slaves and now supported the Republicans to keep confederated officers out of office.Other economical advances were the suspension of debt collection and protection for property owners from loan sharks. Thus far the public school education provided by the state stood above all as an achievement during the Reconstruction. Most schools were segregated with the exception of â€Å"New Orleans, were public schools were integrated†¦ nd only South Carolina did the state university admitted black s tudents† (Foner, Give Me Liberty, II 575). By 1870 more than half the white and black population attended public school (One may note Booker T Washington's â€Å"Keep me separated but equal†).Change in office from prewar leaders to newer governments, laws were passed to end racial discrimination from service providers such as railroads and hotels, though this was not enforced equally from region to region, it was one of the first steps towards standardizing what we now call equal citizenship for all. Republican government stablished the ‘State land Commission' made attempts to improve the South's economic situations by allowing labors/farmers to claim their crops before the land owners and merchants.This was an issue since, farmers often owed the land owners and would regularly part with their crops for less than its worth. Officials believed that establishing railroads were key to improving the South's economy, they believed that this will make way for factories, towns and a variety for agricultural developments. This idea was not very successful since most Northern companies had their attentions turned to the West instead of the devastated South. Due to the failure to improve the South's economy, the economic status of most freedman remained the same.With this failed attempt came a change in government, a ‘biracial democratic government' was introduced to Americans. With this came the â€Å"overthrow of the reconstruction† (Foner, Give Me Liberty, II 575), many in the south were against the new form of government and called it corrupt and ineffective. Though corruption existed before, its aims now differ, some states were stained with â€Å"bribery, insider deals and get rich atmospheres† (Foner, Give Me Liberty, II 576). These practices soon nded due to increased taxes to support public funded services such as schools and construction of railroads.Raising of taxes backfired since it caused poor whites in the south to e nd their support for the Republican Government since they saw that their whites in the south who found it difficult to accept freed slaves as their equals and allowing them to hold offices and voting. Southern radicals who still dreams of the (golden age of the South) now sought to obstruct the reconstruction by violence, by now they not on questioned the policies of the reconstruction, they believed that they ust end the republican rule and had a disbelieve in the federal government.This movement became known as the â€Å"reign of terror† (Foner, Give Me Liberty, II 576). , giving rise to individual hate crimes on road sides against black who would not step aside for whites. These hate crimes would late become more organized and led to the formation of cults such as the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) which serves as a â€Å"military arm for the Democratic party in the south† (Foner, Give Me Liberty, II 577). Thought the main target for the KKK were predominantly blacks/ freed sla ves; Foner claims that the KKK often assaulted white members of the Republicans, artime Unionist, office holders and teachers from the north.These acts of terrorism were carried out by conservative whites in the south who preferred the olden ways. KKK activities alarmed southern government following the attack on a small town in â€Å"Colfax, Louisiana in 1873; armed whited assaulted the town with small cannons† (Foner, Give Me Liberty, II 578). Due to these circumstances, Washington approved the use of federal troops to subdue all terrorist activities, this which ultimately led to the federal government to expand its authority throughout the south.Troops shortly deployed to apprehend anyone associate with the KKK, many ere arrested and many fled. These affirmative actions in 1872 towards the KKK caused the clan o disband and eventually dissolved completely granting the South genuine peace. Another contributing reasons for the failure of the reconstruction goes to the reappea rance of racism in the North. Many believed that enough was done, blacks were now free and given voting rights and that was enough.With all the emphasis on the KKK, other political ploys were formed in the north simultaneously. The Liberal Republicans were formed, electing the â€Å"editor of the New York Tribute for president† (Foner, Give Me Liberty, II 579). Being that there was now division amongst Republicans, Democrats made Greeley their candidate for president in the election of 1874. This was done with hopes of returning the Democrats to power but failed since most voters simple refrained from voting, resulting in a landslide victory for Grant in 1874.Reconstruction was still not in the clear, in fact things had gotten worse, Journalist, James S. Pike, published â€Å"the Prostate States† (Foner, Give Me Liberty, II 578), which blamed the corruptions of the Southern states on black who held office, blacks were depicted as less than humans and animalistic instea d. This contributed o the rebirth of racism and the rise of the Democrats again. With Democrats dominating congress, the; old ones enacted a final piece of Reconstruction legislation, The Civil Rights act of 1785†¦ utlawing racial discrimination† (Foner, Give Me Liberty, II 580), though this was not upheld by the Supreme Court. In following years, Democrats would rise up and take control of few strategic southern states. These stated began calling themselves the â€Å"redeemed† (Foner, Give Me Liberty, II 581), referring to the act of returning their rightful white leaders back to office. Unlike the KKK who operated at night, armed individuals in these ‘redeemed' ctions were taken to combat these attacks which played a major role in the election of 1877.In the so called redeemed states, ballet boxes were destroyed and freed slaves/republicans were turned away from voting by armed southern Democrats which consequently led the victory of the Democrats and Ruthe rford B. Hayes as president. Though one of the most controversial elections of the 19th century, Republicans submitted after attempting to secure a promise from Hayes that he will uphold the rights for all. This marked the end of the Reconstruction in 1877, though it continued, allowed many blacks to vote and hold office.Reconstruction would not come up again â€Å"until the Civil Rights movement in the 1950's to 1960's† (Foner, Give Me Liberty, II 582). Thought many would consider the Reconstruction of 1967-1877 a failure, it did prepare a foundation for the Civil Rights movement which occurred in 1950, it was the first attempt of many to meet the promise of the nation in which everyone was truly given an opportunity. The Reconstruction also illustrates the evils of politics and how one man's neglect towards his duties can affect a nation, this referring to Grant turning a blind eye to the attacks in 1875.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Abraham Lincoln A Man Of Great Wisdom And Determination

Like the saying â€Å"Rome wasn’t built in a day† neither was America. If it wasn’t for George Washington we simply would not be here. However, Abraham Lincoln is the reason the United States is still united. Abraham Lincoln was a self-made man. As the sixteenth American President, a man of great wisdom and determination, he was determined to end slavery. Lincoln put the importance and devotion for his nation before his own personal convictions. Lincoln wasn’t raised in a wealthy middle class family. He was born dirt-poor in a log cabin in Kentucky in 1809. Lincoln grew up self-educated, with a taste for jokes, hard work, and books. He served for a time as a soldier in the Black Hawk War (Abraham Lincoln: Life in Brief. N.d.)3. He was strong minded and strived for himself and everything he wanted to accomplish. In 1834, he won an election to the state legislature and began self-teaching himself law. Lincoln was admitted to the bar in 1836. Due to lack of experience, he soon lost his first case, however, he became one of the premier lawyers in Illinois. Lincoln held a seat in the Illinois state legislature as a Whig politician in the 1830s and 1840s. The following year, he moved to the newly named state capital of Springfield. For the next few years, he worked there as a lawyer, earning a reputation as â€Å"Honest Abe† (Abraham Lincoln. 2009)4. He pursued his career step by step, earning his title, position and trust, and yet that wasn’t the end of it, he kept self-educatingShow MoreRelatedHow Lincoln Remained Neutral in His 2nd Inaugural Address Essay791 Words   |  4 Pagesconcerned with whether Abraham Lincoln succeeded in remaining indifferent and nonpartisan towards the South in his 2nd Inaugural Address. 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